About Qatar Country from Oasina Roses
The discovery of oil in Qatar in 1939, and its commercial exportation which began in 1949, were turning points in Qatar's development, heralding a new era of accelerated progress in a wide range of fields, including administration, infrastructure and the economy, together with associated improvements in the social and cultural arenas.
Doha lies on the eastern side of the peninsula of Qatar, and is by far the largest city of the country, holding more than half of the total inhabitants.
This new oil-age helped to transform Qatar's economy from its reliance on traditional marine oriented activities such as pearling and fishing, together with some small scale farming into a modern and much more diversified industrial economy. The flow of oil revenues created a more affluent society and one in which rapid increases in living standards, education and health care services was possible. Along with this came a significant population increase, from an estimated 30,000 in the 1950's to, according to recent census figures, more than half a million people today.
Throughout this period of rapid growth, which commenced in the late 1950s, Qatar has made great strides towards establishing its modern status and independent character. The country's impressive modernisation programme is continuing under its present leader, HH Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, who has expressed a special interest in consolidating the valuable steps that have already been taken within the framework of its Arab and Islamic identity. Plans are now in place to build a modern, strong and promising state which can continue to play a worthwhile role, regionally, within the Arab world as a whole, and within the global environment
The provisional modified constitution stipulates that Qatar is an independent and sovereign Arab country. Islam is the official religion and the main source of legislation, and the system is democratic. Arabic is the official language and its people are Arabs.
In accordance which its legal constitution, the state supervises and guides the national economy for the welfare of the country and its people. Private property, capital and labour are the main pillars of the country's social structure organised by law. The state guarantees free economic activity provided that it does not conflict with public interest.
The state also guarantees freedom of residence, a free press and respect for personal property. Qatari citizens are assured equal rights and obligations and its responsibility of the state to provide public jobs.
These and other rights are defined within the country's constitution which stipulates the following administrative structure for the government
The Emir is the Head of State. The system of government is hereditary within the Al Thani Family. Article 17 of the provisional modified constitution stipulates the the Emir shall issue laws according to the proposal of the cabinet and after consultation with the Shura Council
The Cabinet, comprising a Council of Ministers, is the highest executive body, and is presided over by HH the Prime Minister.
The Ministers are, at present, thirteen in number, with responsibilities divided as follows:
- Ministry of Defence.
- Ministry of Interior.
- Ministry of Finance, Economy and Trade.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
- Ministry of Civil Service and Housing Affairs.
- Ministry of Communications and Transport.
- Ministry of Electricity and Water.
- Ministry of Energy and Industry.
- Ministry of Municipality and Agricultural Affairs.
- Ministry of Education and Higher Education.
- Ministry of Public Health.
- Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs.
- Ministry of Justice.
The Advisory Council, the first democratic government institution established since independence in 1972, has proved to be successful and is considered to be suitable to the country's political and social circumstances. It has received strong support from HH The Emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani who holds regular consultations with the Advisory Council and takes into considerations its recommendations on different issues. In addition the cabinet ministers attend Advisory Council sessions and committees, providing an opportunity for constructive exchange of views and for the ministers to respond to queries raised by council members
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